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Sedatives, Hypnotics, Barbiturates

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Examples of Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs, ADDICTIONEND.COM:"Drug Class, Chemical Name, Trade/Street Name, Barbiturates Ultrashort-acting Intermediate-acting Long-acting Thiopental Methohexital Pentobarbital Secobarbital Amobarbital Butabarbital Phenobarbital Pentothal Brevital Nembutal Seconal Amytal Butisol Luminal Barbituratelike Piperidinediones Quinazolinones Tertiary Carbinol Glutethimide Methyprylon Methaqualone Ethchlorvynol Doriden Noludar Quaaludes Placidyl Benzodiazepines Lorazepam Clorazepate Chlordiazepoxide Oxazepam Diazepam Alprazolam Clonazepam Flurazepam Nitrazepam Prazepam Temazepam Trialozam Zopidem Ativan Tranxene Librium Serax Valium Xanax Klonopin Dalmane Mogodan Verstran (Centrax) Restoril Halcion Ambien Carbamates Meprobamate Tybamate Miltown, Equanil Salacen, Tybatran Others Halogenated hydrocarbon Chloral hydrate Paraldehyde Noctec."
http://www.addictionend.com/bookonline/4.htm

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Can sedative-hypnotics cause dependence? Ala-Call/Substance Abuse hotline:"Yes. They can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Regular use over a long period of time may result in tolerance, which means people have to take larger doses to get the same effects. When regular users stop using large doses of these drugs suddenly, they may develop physical withdrawal symptoms ranging from restlessness, insomnia and anxiety, to convulsions and death. When users become psychologically dependent, they feel as if they need the drug to function. Finding and using the drug becomes the main focus in life."
P.O. Box 8563
Cherry Hill, NJ 08002-0563
http://www.snj.com/ala-call/sedative.htm

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Sedative, Hypnotics/Benzodiazepines, Alcohol and Other Drug Addiction Services:"Street Names: Reds, Rainbows, Yellow Jackets, Ludes, and Roofies. Other forms: Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines and Tranquilizers. This class of drugs is mainly only available through a prescription. Barbiturates are prescription drugs used to aid sleep for insomniacs and for the control of seizures. These drugs include Seconal, Nembutal, Tuinal, Amytal (blues, blue heaven), and Phenobarbital. There are also non-barbiturate sedative-hypnotics with similar effects but with different pharmacological properties. These include Doriden, Quaalude, Miltown, and Equinil. Being a Schedule I drug Quaalude cannot be legally prescribed in the United States."
Alcohol and Other Drug Addiction Service
AODA services
178 Spring Pines Dr. Spring, Texas 77386
(214) 340-0364
http://alcohol-drug-treatment.net/benzo.html

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Adverse reactions to sedative/hypnotics: three years' experience, Biopsychiatry.com:"Reported adverse reactions to orally administered sedative/hypnotics were systematically recorded during a 3-year period in a 1,000-bed teaching hospital. Reported cases were reviewed by a multidisciplinary committee and then by a pharmacist, and judgments were made as to type, severity, and outcome of adverse reactions. Probability that the reaction was caused by the medication was recorded in terms of both a global judgment and a systematic scale. The frequency of adverse reactions was calculated as a percentage of total doses of each agent dispensed by the pharmacy during the same time period. The assessment of benzodiazepine sedative/hypnotics indicated that adverse reactions were rare, ranging from frequencies of 0.05% of doses administered (lorazepam) to none (chlorazepate)."
http://www.biopsychiatry.com/sedative-hypnotics.htm

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History of Sedative-hypnotics, California State University:"In 1903, barbital, a derivative of barbituric acid, was introduced. Its sleep-inducing and anxiolytic effects made it very popular in clinical medicine. It soon became popular as a treatment for anxiety and as the first "sleeping pill". In 1912, phenobarbital was introduced. Phenobarbital, in addition to sedative-hypnotic properties, has anticonvulsant properties and has become one of the most important pharmacological treatments for epilepsy. The success of barbital and phenobarbital spawned the synthesis of over 2,500 barbiturates. Of these many barbiturate analogues, only about 20 are still on the market. The effects of these various barbiturates are generally similar, differing primarily in potency and duration of action."
http://www.csusm.edu/DandB/Sedatives.html

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How do these tranquilizers work? Klotz Student Health Center (SHC), California State University:"Sedatives and hypnotics work on the central nervous system. Sedatives are calming drugs, working on neurotransmitter sites in the brain to relieve anxiety and restlessness with a minimum of drowsiness. Sedatives can also lower inhibitions and reduce the intensity of physical sensations. Barbiturates work on the brain stem, inducing sleep and depressing body functions like breathing and muscle control."
Main SHC Phone (818) 677-3666
http://www.csun.edu/~shcenter/health_info/Sedative-Hypnotics.htm

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Toxicity, Sedative-Hypnotics, eMedicine.com, Inc.:"Background: Sedative-hypnotics are a group of drugs that cause CNS depression. Benzodiazepines and barbiturates are the most commonly used agents in this class. Other agents include the nonbarbiturate nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics, such as buspirone, zolpidem, ethchlorvynol, glutethimide, chloral hydrate, meprobamate, methaqualone, methyprylon, carisoprodol, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analog gamma-butyrolactone (GBL). Most severe sedative-hypnotic poisonings are deliberate (suicidal). These agents are also commonly abused as recreational drugs."
Emedicine.com Main Office
1004 Farnam Street, Suite 300 Omaha, Nebraska 68102
Office: 402-341-3222 Fax: 402-341-3336C edit@eMedicine.com
http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic525.htm

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What are some of the sedative-hypnotics? MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH:"Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are the two major categories of sedative-hypnotics. The drugs in each of these groups are similar in chemical structure. Some well-known barbiturates are secobarbital (Seconal) and pentobarbital (Nembutal). Diazepam (Valium), chlordiazepoxide (Librium), and chlorazepate (Tranxene) are examples of benzodiazepines. A few sedative-hypnotics do not fit in either category. They include methaqualone (Quaalude), ethchlorvynol (Placidyl), chloral hydrate (Noctec), and mebrobamate (Miltown). All of these drugs can be dangerous when they are not taken according to a physician's instructions."
MISSOURI DEPARTMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH
Division of Alcohol and Drug Abuse
1706 East Elm; P.O. Box 687
Jefferson City, Missouri 65102
http://www.well.com/user/woa/fsseda.htm

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Sedative-Hypnotics, Psychology Today:"Sedative-hypnotics are Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants and are a category of drugs that slow normal brain function. There are numerous CNS depressants; most act on the brain by affecting the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Neurotransmitters are brain chemicals that facilitate communication between brain cells. GABA works by decreasing brain activity. Although the different classes of CNS depressants work in unique ways, ultimately it is through their ability to increase GABA activity that they produce a drowsy or calming effect that is beneficial to those suffering from anxiety or sleep disorders."
Psychology Today
49 East 21st Street, 11th Floor
New York, NY 10010
212-260-7210
http://www.psychologytoday.com/htdocs/prod/PTOInfo/pto_term_sedative.asp

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Pharmacology of Sedative-Hypnotics, Resources for Co-occurring Addiction and Personality Disorders:"As a class, the various barbiturates are remarkably similar; all are lipid soluble. Once the barbiturate reaches the bloodstream, it is distributed throughout the body and will affect all body tissues. Barbiturates depress the activity of muscle tissues, the heart, and the respiratory system. Within the brain, barbiturates have the greatest impact on awareness (the RAS - reticular activating system) and respiration (medulla oblongata). Depending on dose, barbiturates act as either a sedative or as a hypnotic (Doweiko)."
http://www.toad.net/~arcturus/dd/sedative.htm

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Last updated by Andrew Lopez, RN on Thursday, January 28, 2010


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